Harvard Referencing Footnotes Example Essay

On By In 1

Second and subsequent references to the same source don’t need to be as detailed as the first note—they just need the minimum information to clearly indicate which text is being referred to.

With a single author

Provide all the necessary information in the first footnote. If you want to refer to the same source again, a simple method is to give the author’s name, the year of publication and the page number. For example:

1 K Reid, Higher Education or Education for Hire? Language and Values in Australian Universities, CQU Press, Rockhampton, 1996, p. 87.


3 Reid, p. 98. 

If two or more works by the same author are referred to in the text, include the title:

1 E Gaskell, North and South, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1970, p. 228.

2 E Gaskell, The Life of Charlotte Brontë, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1975, p. 53.

3 Gaskell, North and South, p. 222. 

Subsequent references to articles are done in a similar way: 

17 M Doyle, ‘Captain Mbaye Diagne’, Granta, vol. 48, August 1994, pp. 99-103.

18 ...

19 Doyle, Granta, p. 101.

Guide: How to cite a Website in Harvard style

Use the following template to cite a website using the Harvard citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.


Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the Harvard style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.


Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year Published). Title. [online] Available at: http://Website URL [Accessed Date Accessed].


Tester, J. (2014). EZproxy. [online] Eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk. Available at: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/eds/detail?sid=fa9392f5-3794-4dd7-a8bc-0f2d5915a373%40sessionmgr4005&vid=4&hid=4110&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=67324416 [Accessed 21 Jun. 2014].

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.


(Author Surname, Year Published)


income statement has several indicators (canaries) that will telegraph early warning signs well before the company starts to lose money or the bank balance starts to drop precariously low. (Tester, 2014)

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